13th Amendment Anti-Slavery Newspapers Underground Railroad Black Codes Ku Klux Klan
Events and Issues
The Emancipation Proclamation was issued on September 23, 1862 by Abe Lincoln. It stated that all slaves would be declared free in those states still in rebellion against the U.S. on January 1, 1863. The Emancipation Proclamation did not apply to Delaware, Kentucky, Maryland, Missouri, and parts of Virginia and Louisiana that were already occupied by Northern troops. In December of 1865, that the 13th Amendment of the Constitution had been passed. Slavery was then abolished everywhere in the U.S.
There were many laws that set restrictions on all of the freed slaves. It stated that they couldn't vote, couldn't sit on juries, it limited their right to testify against white men, they couldn’t carry weapons in public, and they could only have certain jobs. After the Civil War, The Civil Rights Bill was passed that protected freed slaves from the Black codes. But, in 1866, President Andrew Johnson vetoed the bill because his belief was that white was the elite of the country.-
In 1821 Benjamin Lundy began publishing anti-slavery newspapers called, Genius of Universal Emancipation. There were also other ant-slavery papers such as, The Liberator, The Free Enquirer, North Star, and Freedom’s Journal. All of these papers included passages from sermons, parts of slave narratives, reports on anti-slavery meetings, and details of upcomming events. Editors of these newspapers were attacked regularly and on Nov. 7, 1837, Elijah P Lovejoy was killed while attempting to protect his printing press from a mob of pro-slavery people.
The Underground Railroad was started in 1787 by Isaac T. Hopper. Used for hiding and aiding fugitive slaves. Routes went through 14 Northern states and Canada. One escaped slave, Harriet Tubman, returned and helped over 300 slaves! There were an estimated 3,000 people by 1850 that worked on the Underground Railroad. By 1850, congress passed the Fugitive Slave Act. Any federal marshal who did not arrest a runaway slave would be fined $1,000. Anyone helping the runaways could be jailed for 6 months with a $1,000 fine. The Delaware “Station master” Thomas Garrett was fined $8,000. Calvin Fairbank servers more than 17 years for his anti-slavery activities.
Ku Klux Klan
The first branch of the K.K.K (Ku Klux Klan) was established in Pulaski, Tennessee in 1866. In 1867, a local group was established in Nashville. Members of the K.K.K. wore masks, white cardboard hats, and white sheets. They. tortured and killed black Americans, sympathetic whites, and immigrants. Most leaders were formerly members of the Confederate army. On April 20, 1871, The Ku Klux Act was put into action by Congress. The president was then given the power the intervene in troubled states where disturbances occurred. In 1944 the K.K.K. organization was disbanded.